Harold Lecar

Harold LecarHarold Lecar is professor of biophysics and neurobiology at the University of California Berkeley. He received his Ph.D. in physics from Columbia in 1963, working on masers with C. H. Townes.

From 1963 to 1985, he was a research physicist at the Biophysics Lab of the National Institute of Neurological
Disease and Stroke, doing both theoretical and experimental research on the mechanisms of nerve excitation. Much of his research involved the application of statistical physics to understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying nerve excitation.

In 1985, he received the US Public Health Service Special Recognition Award for "contributions to the understanding of the role of membrane ionic channels in producing electrical excitability and for pioneering work in advancing

Since 1985, he has been professor of biophysics and
neurobiology at UC Berkeley.

Harold started working on election problems in 2000, when he watched the Florida election results going monotonically up for Bush (and then monotonically down) in the final two hours of the vote count -- hardly what is expected for a random process with approximately 50-50 a-priori probability.

As did many election integrity workers, he watched aghast as the 2004 election was being stolen in real time, with contested state after contested state mysteriously reversing late in the day.  Two weeks after the election, he was one of the initial members of Berkeley's Voting Rights Task Force and took on analysis as his prime responsibility.

Harold has delved into the numbers behind some of the strangest election results in recent American history, including the presidential elections in New Hampshire and Florida 2004, the California gubernatorial recall, and a series of studies of third-party voting behavior in the 2004 California presidential election that defy political and numerical common sense.

In a number of studies, he has tried to ferret out the consequences of different computer vote-transfer schemes. He used these methods to study California Proposition 66 (2004) concerning the "three strikes" law. This proposition was favored by both Democrats and Republicans in the polls, yet lost in the election, rather reminiscent of Prop. 8 in the 2008

The California anomalies were the basis for an effort pursued with Judy Alter and Dan Ashby, to find a government prosecutor with the subpoena power and will to follow staggeringly improbable vote counts to their source and find out if they were real. Various consulting election lawyers said none would, and ultimately, their pessimism proved correct. This effort was ultimately frustrated, but we learned a lot about the barriers to discovery built into election laws that prevent public examination of critical election evidence.

As a coordinator, Harold is eager to facilitate communication and exchange of technical ideas among members of the EDA Data Analysis Group, all of whose work he has studied and admired.

Abbe Waldman DeLozier

Abbe Waldman DeLozier is co-author and co-editor (with Vicki Karp) of the book "Hacked! High Tech Election Theft In America, 11 Experts Expose the Truth.”

The book presents the work of eleven experts on the issue of electronic vote fraud, stolen elections, and best solutions to the crisis, explaining how elections in America have been privatized by large corporations, counting votes on secret software, and the imperative for citizens to reclaim transparency and public accountability in elections.

Ms. Delozier has co-produced press conferences in Washington, D.C., and Austin, Texas, on the issue of vote fraud, one being on September 22nd, 2004, at the National Press Club titled, "Hacking the Presidential Election: A Bipartisan Problem, Anyone Can Do It." There, Bev Harris, computer security expert Dr. Herbert Thompson, and Jeremiah Akin demonstrated six ways election software could be easily hacked.

The other was co-produced in conjunction with True and took place at the State Capitol in Austin, Texas, coinciding with national activities supporting "The Computer Ate My Vote Day!"

Abbe DeLozier is a frequent guest on national radio shows, speaking on electronic voting and the crisis of legitimacy in American elections.

John Brakey

On Election Day 2004, John Brakey was Democratic Cluster Captain for four precincts in Arizona Congressional District 7, which had 80% non-Republican, predominately Hispanic voter registration, yet would be recorded as having voted 42% for Bush.

Throughout Election Day, John witnessed suspicious behavior by poll workers at three of his four precincts. An hour after the polls had closed, he caught poll workers at one of these stations in the act of altering the poll books.

Shocked, John immediately launched what would grow into a 1,000+ hour audit of the voting at precinct #324, beginning by salvaging the poll-worker-annotated “Advice to Voter” slips from the trash the next morning and then buying copies of all other pertinent public records.

John entered all of these data on Excel spreadsheets and began e-mailing them to Dave Griscom with highlighted oddities and irregularities.

Eventually, the team of Brakey and Griscom uncovered evidence of an elaborate "hack and stack" poll-worker fraud designed to alter the optical scan ballot count and evade detection in a recount. Griscom was able to calculate the probability of the seven irregularities they found being committed exactly 11 times each. The odds that these seven irregularities were random accidents due to poll-worker incompetence, were less than one chance in 20 million.

Conclusion: The poll workers did these things on purpose, and they religiously followed a formula whereby they could have swung the vote by as much as 12.8%--without being detected in a manual recount of the ballots.

John Brakey is a co-founder of AUDIT-AZ (Americans United for Democracy, Integrity, and Transparency in Elections, Arizona) and the Special Task Force Leader of the Arizona Democratic Party Election Integrity Committee, in which he works with EDA Investigations Co-Coordinator David Griscom.


David L. Griscom, Ph.D

david griscom photoDavid L. Griscom is a co-founder of AUDIT-AZ (Americans United for Democracy, Integrity, and Transparency in Elections, Arizona) and a Fellow of the American Physical Society, retired from a 33-year career with the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, DC.

In 2004, while he was Adjunct Professor of Materials Science and Engineering at the University of Arizona in Tucson, Griscom happened to meet John R. Brakey. On Election Day 2004, Brakey was Democratic Cluster Captain for four precincts in Arizona Congressional District 7, which had 80% non-Republican, predominately Hispanic registration, yet would be recorded as having voted 42% for Bush.

Having witnessed suspicious behaviors by poll workers at three of his four precincts, John Brakey launched a 1,000+ hour audit of the voting at precinct #324, and called on David Griscom for assistance in analyzing the voting records.

Eventually, the investigative duo uncovered a pattern of poll-worker fraud, and Griscom was able to use simple gambler’s odds to prove that the probability of seven different irregularities being committed exactly 11 times each, was less than one chance in 20 million if they were seven random accidents due to poll-worker incompetence.

Conclusions: The poll workers did these things on purpose, and they religiously followed a formula whereby they could have swung the vote by as much as 12.8% -- without being detected in a manual recount of the ballots.

In 2005, Dave was invited to speak on John’s and his research at the National Election Reform Conference (Nashville), the Election Assessment Hearing (Houston), and the AZ Democratic Committee Meeting (Flagstaff).

Dave also presented a research paper on these findings at the Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, February 17, 2007, in San Francisco.


Marj Creech, Secretary

Marj grew up in the racist, classist South in the 50s and 60s and was witness to the division of society during the Civil Rights era. A creative, stubborn, iconoclastic streak led Marj to try adventurous things.

After earning a degree in philosophy, she joined the Women’s Army Corps which assigned her to Walter Reed Hospital. There she saw many injured soldiers and became friends with the oppressed from all backgrounds who joined the Army to escape poverty.

After the war she became active in the feminist and gay rights movements while entering the Christian ministry.

After fighting for justice over the years, the 2004 election awoke Marj to the utter dysfunction of our democracy, despite the pall of normalcy cast by society and the media. She realized that the only way to bring justice is to create a movement, as powerful as the Civil Rights movement, to repair and restore our electoral system – otherwise virtually no other progress can be made.

Her tasks in the movement are to help active people to respond to this crisis. Since the US has so much influence in the world, Marj understands that the struggle for election integrity is crucial to the struggle for the dignity and worth of all peoples of the world.

Marj is an organizer, encourager, bringer of humor and lifter of spirits in local Ohio groups (J30 and CASE Ohio, and also a Licking County activist group –LICOPAC).

She has participated in and helped organize parallel elections, records investigations, conferences and educational forums, parade floats, rallies, parties, coffee house events, and has generated numerous educational flyers to hand out at other people’s events, performs as The Honest Elections Cow, and co-hosts a website called OH-WAVE.

Judy Alter, Ph.D.

Judy Alter (Judith B. Alter Ed.D.), emeritus UCLA Professor, began working on election justice issues four days after the CA Oct. 2003 Recall election when Lynn Landes offered compelling evidence about how Diebold machines swung the election away from Bustamante to the current "governor."

Before the Nov. 2004 election she urged elected officials to consider counting voters' filled in sample ballots to check the accuracy of the secret software being used in the election. Jeremiah Akin trained her in the thwarted Recount New Mexico effort. She subsequently analyzed the voting results in Santa Fe NM (posted on Solarbus and freepress) and since January 2005, has given numerous talks about her findings there as a case study of voting irregularities in the 2004 presidential election.

She started Study California Ballots and signed up over 260 volunteers in 16 CA counties to work toward unsealing the 2004 ballots.

In July 2005 some of her volunteers invited her to help audit the San Diego mayoral election where she led 23 volunteers from 7 counties in parallel elections at 5 polling sites (11 precincts). She directed a partial inconclusive recount there in Aug. 2005.

She conducted 8 parallel elections in Los Angeles County for the special election in Nov. 2005 and helped set up others in four other CA counties (total 19).

Since then she continues to work in Los Angeles County lobbying against ES&S precinct scanners for LA for Nov. 2006; helping technical observers monitor election equipment in election headquarters; educating the public in more than 45 talks; analyzing the results of 1% manual recount and snap tallies; and circulating citizen petitions for hand marked, hand counted ballots at the precinct level.

Sally Castleman, Co-Founder, Co-Director

Sally Castleman began her political work in high school and has never stopped working on campaigns, both for candidates and for issues. Her work on election reform began in earnest during the 2004 election, when she worked recruiting and training attorneys for election protection roles.  After evaluating the issues they reported and observing how Ohio's recount laws were flagrantly violated to falsify the recount in which she participated, she dedicated herself full-time to issues of election integrity.  

She began by working in the greater-Boston area, branched out to work with leaders in other states and soon saw the need for a national body to help coordinate the vibrant but often-isolated grassroots work. Since co-founding Election Defense Alliance, Ms Castleman has focused her efforts on educating election officials, the general public, and decision-makers around the country about the prevailing conditions in our election system; creating and organizing citizen exit polls as a method of validating (or not) official outcomes; exposing disregard by election officials of election law; and helping with strategy and grassroots organizing for many projects. Ms Castleman has appeared on numerous TV and radio interviews, led discussions with many groups around the country about the need for transparency in our elections, and has published several articles.

Ms Castleman served as EDA’s first National Chairperson and is currently its Co-Director. In her professional life Ms. Castleman has many times conceptualized, designed, implemented and managed programs. As well, she has often played the roles of publicist and strategist. She has also been a professional fundraiser.


Jonathan Simon, Co-Founder, Director

Jonathan Simon, a graduate of Harvard College and New York University School of Law, is a member of the Bar of Massachusetts. As a result of his prior experience as a political survey research analyst for Peter D. Hart Research Associates in Washington, he became an early advocate for an exit poll-based electoral "burglar alarm" system, independent of media and corporate control, to detect computerized vote shifting in Election 2004. In the absence of such a system, he was nevertheless able to capture and analyze critical official exit poll data briefly posted on the web prior to its election-night disappearance, data which served as an initial basis for questioning the validity of Election 2004. Dr. Simon is a member of Alliance for Democracy and We Do Not Concede, and has worked closely with several key election integrity organizations, including National Ballot Integrity Project and National Election Data Archive. He has authored or coauthored several papers addressing statistical anomalies and other evidence of computerized election fraud, and has collaborated with Bruce O’Dell in the development of an effective handcount sampling protocol to be deployed as a check mechanism where computerized vote tabulation is used. Because he believes that restoration of fair and honorable elections will depend upon exposure of the systemic fraud currently nullifying American democracy, and because he is deeply skeptical about the impact of proposed federal electoral reform legislation, Dr. Simon has focused much of his effort on the introduction of working hand-counted paper ballot voting methods and/or airtight handcount sampling protocols at the state and local levels.

Coordinating Council

EDA founders and Coordinators bring diverse backgrounds, experience, and a high level of commitment to election integrity and the important work of restoring our democracy.

We are actively seeking more people to work with us.  Bring your own election projects and/or join us with to help with our current EDA projects.

To get started, open an EDA web account (this gives you read-write access), and join in the year-round, full-time campaign to restore transparency and public accountability to U.S. elections.

Come work with us whether you are already an election activist or not. Any volunteer work you've ever done on any kind of social change campaign, will be applicable to election integrity work.
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